Fostering collaboration and creative thinking through extra-curricular challenges with primary and secondary students (2023)


As the first quarter of the 21st century approaches, the notion creativity is witnessing a greater acknowledgement of the historical connection beyond the creative arts in education (Eisner,1972, 2004; Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022). Creativity is often linked with Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) (Halverson & Sawyer,2022) an acronym attributed to Ramaley in 2001, who was the Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources at the US National Science Foundation. STEM entered Congress in 2004 (Hallinen,2015; Koonceetal., 2011; Lyons,2020; Mohr-Schroederetal., 2015), and is central to the OECD's 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration).

The rhetoric of the OECD's 4Cs as 21st century skills (21CS) occupies a range of global educational and economic interests with STEM education (AustralianAcademy of Science,2021; Lummisetal., 2021; OECD,2017, 2019, 2020; STEMLearning 2023; Tytleretal., 2008). Global economies realise complex challenges with diverse contexts seeking cognitive dexterity to develop solutions through teamwork within the digital techno-political corporate or government systems, to secure economic growth, whilst protecting the biosphere (Greenland etal., 2022; UnitedNations,2022).

The Australian Curriculum embeds the 4Cs as general capabilities of critical and creative thinking; personal and social capability; and information and communication technology capability (AustralianCurriculum,Assessment and Reporting Authority(ACARA) n.d.). Research reports collaborative innovation being common in the workplace but not a priority in education (Venteretal., 2022). Although the OECD emphasises an instrumental narrative of future skills fostering (Dalyetal., 2019; OECD,2017, 2019, 2020; Schleicher,2012) these underscore high level relational skills and/or emotional intelligence required to negotiate complex systems. Research suggests that collaboration varies between disciplines and purposed contextual tasks (Halverson & Sawyer,2022). Problem-solving and inquiry-based strategies and pedagogies for STEM contexts vary (Artigue & Blomhøj,2013; AustralianAcademy of Science,2021; Dawsonetal., 2019; STEMLearning,2023; Tytleretal., 2008; Vincent-Lacrinetal., 2019). The rhetoric of the OECD needs to be interpreted explicitly to a diverse curriculum inclusive of the arts and humanities (Morris & Coleman,2019; Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022). Therefore, the 4Cs should not only be embedded in policy but part of a successful teacher's repertoire to facilitate authentic learning that is flexible, critically reflective, and innovative (Alismail & McGuire,2015).

Tournament of Minds (TOM) invites teachers and students to prepare for challenges across the four disciplines of: Arts (A); Language Literature (LL); Social Sciences (SS); and Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) with A/LL/SS/STEM being the compound acronym. This research investigated how teachers from different learning areas embed three components of the 21CS and capabilities (21CS-4Cs) across a common Spontaneous Challenge.

The 4Cs can be developed via school experiences and extra-curricular activities such as team challenges (Kashani-Vahidetal., 2017; Olszewski-Kubilius & Lee,2004). TOM challenges do not have the structural limitations found in schools (Lingardetal., 2016; Lummisetal., 2021). Importantly, collaborative problem-solving activities can enhance innovative primary and middle year students (Kashani-Vahidetal., 2017), which can motivate post-secondary interests in STEM (Chanetal., 2020; Shields & Chugh,2018), and equally applies to other learning areas such as the Arts (Halverson & Sawyer,2022; Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022). Extra-curricular challenges (Alismail & McGuire,2015; Drew,2013; Eguchi,2016), have shown positive impacts on student learning within a contextual focus (Nugentetal., 2011).

TOM challenges encourage students in Years 3–10 to develop critical thinking and teamwork for seeking creative outcomes. The 21CS-4Cs cannot be adequately nurtured merely through the memorisation of content (Eguchi,2016) or formal examination (Lummisetal., 2021). Successful teachers understand the relevant disciplinary skills and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (Shulman,1986, 1987) in developing students (Kashani-Vahidetal., 2017; Vincent-Lancrinetal., 2019).

Creativity is an innate and complex human attribute with its own established discourse and variance (Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022). The historical rhetoric of creativity is often associated with imagination, founded in the creative arts and self-expression, and is the cornerstone of innovation in STEM (Eisner,1972, 2004; Vygotsky,1978). Creativity often has a socio-cognitive relationship across learning areas (Halverson & Sawyer,2022) but this social aspect varies according to the context of the inquiry. In both developing and developed economies creativity is linked to the rhetoric of economic outcomes (OECD,2017, 2019, 2020, 2020; Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022). However, there is a great deal of variance ranging from purely intrinsic aesthetic exploration, decorative and function design through to the projection of ‘big ideas’ associated with socio-psychological and historical-cultural discourse (Eisner,1972, 2004).

Researchers (Halverson & Sawyer,2022; Morris & Coleman,2019) emphasise that authentic arts practice, combined with the humanities, and languages have a transformative and complimentary socio-cognitive functions, which also applies to diverse STEM learning (Halverson & Sawyer,2022). Frequent themes include innovation, and collaborative problem solving (Stewart,Mueller, & Tippins, 2019). The common assumption is the facilitation of a student's imagination through arts practice (Morris & Coleman,2019), or through inquiry STEM experiences (AustralianAcademy of Science,2021; STEMLearning,2023; Tytleretal., 2008). The common pedagogical assumptions are to provide primary and secondary students novel ways to enhance their cognitive, linguistic, socio-cultural, and historical perspectives during a challenge (Halverson & Sawyer,2022).

Group creativity is viewed as the simultaneous creation of work by two or more people who depend on an intangible relationship between individuals during the improvisation phase of product development (Sawyer,2003). This is seen in both ensembles of musicians and casts in theatre production, with improvisation emphasised as “shared creative acts rather than the manifestation of the director's vision” (Copeau in Sawyer,2003, p. 5) whereby collective group creativity is quite different to the cognitive processes of the individual. Sawyer(2003) describes these group creativity characteristics as the “process, unpredictability, intersubjectivity, complex communication and emergence” (p. 5).

The intent of TOM A/LL/SS/STEM challenges is to elevate the imaginative over the factual, valuing participation over measuring, where the quality of the journey is the educational priority rather than the prize of the destination (TOM,2020), demonstrating consistency with the literature (Eisner,1972, 2004; Halverson & Sawyer,2022). The challenges disrupt the formal school processes to focus on cognitive and social constructivist experiences supporting potential careers linked to complex economic, environmental, social, political, and corporate challenges (Alismail & McGuire,2015; Greenland etal., 2022; Lombardi,2007; Shields & Chugh,2018; UnitedNations,2022; Vincent-Lancrinetal., 2019).

TOM values expert teaching and age appropriate PCK that facilitates innovation in its teams, serves as role models, and build confidence to realise creative outcomes (Shulman,1986, 1987). TOM supports STEM learning (Tytleretal.etal., 2008) as well as visual and creative processes (Morris & Coleman,2019; Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022), with opportunities for social constructivist learning (Basbug,2020; Vygotsky,1978). Therefore, creativity and teamwork are an expectation (Joynesetal., 2019; Leggett,2017; Runcoetal., 2017; Swanzy-Impraimetal., 2022); however, creativity in STEM or the Arts needs to be framed by an authentic context to transform learning. Inquiry-based approaches for STEM education or other disciplinary inquiry requires multiple skills and understandings across integrated disciplines (AustralianAcademy of Science,2021; STEMLearning,2023; Tytleretal., 2008). Collaborative activities stimulate critical thinking that is communicated through authentic problem-based projects. For example, in literature covering the United Kingdom and Australia, many schools have clubs that see teams engaged in robotics or engineering solutions (Lummisetal., 2021; Nadelson & Seifert,2017; STEMLearning,2023) with diverse levels of collaborations. It has been found that the creative arts support individual expression in a social constructivist setting (Morris & Coleman,2019), STEM pedagogies often pursue collaboration to solve a problem over an individual's imaginative outcomes. In the creative arts research claims cooperative expressive works are often restricted to large scale murals, sculptural installations, costume design, architecture, and curatorial activities (Basbug,2020), and a similar variation applies to musical performance, dramatic interpretations, and digital artefacts. Expression is an aesthetic and interpretative process that is inclusive of the humanities and language and therefore is involves a collaborative component that is relatively open, fostering a multiplicity of value-based creative solutions. In contrast, groups of students engaged in STEM solutions with robotic or engineering problems are intently focused over extended periods of time (Lummisetal., 2021; STEMLearning,2023) contrast to personal imaginative expressive activities (Basbug,2020).

(Video) Fostering collaboration in the ELT classroom - Dan Vincent and Ben Knight

Research (Thibautetal., 2018) reports five integrated STEM teaching and learning models which is supported by some TOM challenges. The integration of STEM content is often discussed as being problem-centred, inquiry-based learning, design-based learning, and cooperative learning teamwork (AustralianAcademy of Science,2021; STEMLearning,2023), usually guided by an expert STEM teacher. TOM extra-curricular challenges direct small teams to consider how these skills are facilitated in students to develop a solution within a given challenge unlike the formal school-based learning expectations (Alismail & McGuire,2015). TOM challenges shift the pedagogical learning ecologies away from the school timetable and disciplinary centred contexts (Lummisetal., 2021), which impede interdisciplinary collaborative approaches to STEM (Nadelson & Siefert,2017). Research suggests successful teachers employ pedagogical strategies to enhance critical thought processes (AustralianAcademy of Science,2021; Drew,2013; STEMLearning,2023; Tytleretal., 2008). Finally, despite diversity of approaches across learning area pedagogy, research reports cooperative learning develops reflective and critical thinking by sharing team members’ strengths, for innovative outcomes (Alismail & McGuire,2015; Basbug,2020).

Research reports that creativity is the first stage of innovation (Somech & Drach-Zahavy,2013) where new ideas are generated for potential application (Amabile,1988; Amabileetal., 1996; Oldham & Cummings,1996; Scott & Bruce,1994). For the problem-solving process to progress, the creative ideas need to be applied to a context (Hansen & Levine,2009; Hülshegeretal., 2009; Somech & Drach-Zahavy,2013). This transformation requires critical reflection, where the most suitable ideas from a small team rather than an individual are evaluated and selected (Amabileetal., 1996; George,2007). Importantly, innovation is an outcome from cognitive and motivational processes that might accommodate small groups or an individual as shown across the imaginative play in creative expression (Mumford & Gustafson,1988).

This study underscores the sharing and construction of ideas within a team as the catalyst for extending selected ideas into innovation (Baruah & Paulus,2009; Dugoshetal., 2000; Nijstad & Stroebe,2006; Paulus & Brown,2007). Idea generation is akin to a chain reaction (Osborn,1957) during the process of cognitive stimulation (Dugoshetal., 2000). Sharing ideas within a team activates a network of ideas that otherwise would not be possible (Dugoshetal., 2000).

This study investigated how A/LL/SS/STEM challenges, fosters collaborative behaviours, using the General Thematic Areas (GTA) Amusement Park Theoretical (APT) model of creativity (Baer & Kaufman,2005). This allowed comparisons of three components of the 4Cs: critical thinking processes, teamwork/collaboration, and creativity/innovation. Each challenge addresses the teamwork and critical thinking processes to produce a creative outcome for Tournament Day.

In addition, all teams were rostered to undertake a non-discipline specific Spontaneous Challenge. The teams were judged using disclosed weighted criteria by a group of experienced educators focussing on thinking processes (TP), teamwork (TW), and creative outcome (CO) (TOM,2019).

The Spontaneous Challenge was designed to accommodate a direct comparison of how different teams of students worked together to produce a creative outcome and explore how the teams might be operating differently across the four disciplines (i.e., A/LL/SS/STEM). The data provided the researchers with an opportunity to interpret the application of three 21CS through a particular disciplinary lens. Research (Baer & Kaufman,2005) claims differences of GTAs in the application of 21CS of TP, TW, and CO. The researchers hypothesised potential differences in the way the various disciplinary teams approach the Spontaneous Challenge and how the perceptions of the 21CS might be interpreted by a teacher's specific learning area PCK culture (Heardetal., 2020).

The Tournament of Minds Ltd Board was interested in having research completed to look at the educational impact of its challenges. One of the researchers was on the Board and agreed to explore the impact of the challenges. Following Australian ethics approval, archival data from the 2019 TOM Ltd regional challenges was released. This was used to assess any relationships or differences between the four disciplines.

Section snippets

Critical thinking processes

Critical thinking is central to global problem-solving across diverse contexts leading to innovative solutions across sustainability (Greenland etal., 2022; Shields & Chugh,2018; Vincent-Lancrinetal., 2019).

There are many definitions covering critical thinking; for example, an individual's disposition and abilities is taken into account (Ennis,2018) with “the ability to analyse, interpret, evaluate, summarise, and synthesise information” (Trilling & Fadel,2009, p. 51). The Australian


A non-experimental explanatory correlational research design was used to determine possible relationships without the manipulation of variables or researchers’ input into the intervention (Creswell,2021). After university ethics approval, archival data from the 2019 TOM Ltd challenge was made available to the researchers to determine if any relationships or differences between A/LL/SS/STEM.

(Video) Collaborative Learning Builds Deeper Understanding


Preliminary assumption testing was conducted to test for normality, linearity, and homogeneity of variance matrices. Any notable violations are mentioned within the hypothesis testing as below. Table2 presents the descriptive data for A/LL/SS/STEM in respect to the judging/scoring data criteria (thinking processes, teamwork, creative outcome).


The purpose of this study was to explore the development of 21CS in primary and secondary students, via participation in a collaborative team challenge. TOM challenges, provide relevant data to show whether out-of-school extra-curricular activities have the capacity to develop 21CS. Data reports that TOM can be effective in assisting students in developing and displaying 21CS. The data indicated differences in how these skills are demonstrated in team responses between disciplines, which


As this research is an exploratory model of TOM data, it is important to acknowledge the collection of the creativity data in a quick spontaneous challenge is a potential limitation. The process of divergent thinking is founded on the requirement of time to allow for the discovery and construction of new ideas (Runco,2016). For example, research in industrial design found that time pressure constraints are realistic in the workplace, however, a designer's creativity and cognition can be


Problem solving challenges foster 21CS, provides a pathway for teachers to facilitate the learning of collaborative critical and creative thinking in their students. This study demonstrated that teachers could promote 21CS in their teaching practices if they are aware of what critical and creative thinking entails, through student participation in extra-curricular challenges. Furthermore, problem solving in teams enhances the critical thinking and creativity outcomes.

Finally, the process of

Disclosure statement

The key author is a Board member with Tournament of Minds Ltd. This paper did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Christina M. Norris: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Project administration, Software, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization. Tracy A. Taylor: Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing. Geoffrey W. Lummis: Writing – review & editing.

Declaration of Competing Interest



At the time of conducting the research one of the authors was also a representative on the international Board for TOM Ltd. The other authors have been involved as judges during the tournament presentation days. The authors would like to thank the TOM Ltd Board for access to the competition data to investigate the nature of 21C skills.

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What teaching strategies can be used to foster critical and creative thinking among students? ›

Critical thinking exercises for elementary education
  • Ask questions. ...
  • Encourage decision-making. ...
  • Work in groups. ...
  • Incorporate different points of view. ...
  • Connect different ideas. ...
  • Inspire creativity. ...
  • Brainstorm.

How do you foster collaboration in students? ›

10 Strategies to Build on Student Collaboration in the Classroom
  1. Deliberately select which students will work together. ...
  2. Size the groups for maximum effectiveness. ...
  3. Teach your students how to listen to one another. ...
  4. Set the rules of language and collaboration. ...
  5. Make goals and expectations clear.

What collaborative learning strategy where students work together to solve a problem or answer a question about an assigned reading? ›

Think-pair-share (TPS) is a collaborative learning strategy where students work together to solve a problem or answer a question about an assigned reading. This strategy requires students to (1) think individually about a topic or answer to a question; and (2) share ideas with classmates.

What students can demonstrate what they have learned and how to solve problems through a collaborative effort in solving a complex problem? ›

Performance assessment

Students can demonstrate what they have learned and how to solve problems through a collaborative effort in solving a complex problem together. Not only do they learn how to work in a team, but also how to brainstorm and utilize their separate grains of knowledge to benefit the whole.

What are 5 techniques educators can use to help foster creativity? ›

Other ways to teach and encourage creativity in the classroom include:
  • Set time aside for journaling.
  • Participate in five minutes of mindfulness each day.
  • Build brainstorming sessions.
  • Use gamification to encourage participation.
  • Encourage risk taking.
  • Leave the classroom more often.
  • Allow students to teach.
  • Use visual aids.
Sep 15, 2020

How can teachers encourage creative thinking in their students? ›

Try adding words like “create,” “design,” “invent,” “imagine,” “suppose,” to your assignments. Adding instructions such as “Come up with as many solutions as possible” or “Be creative!” can increase creative performance. Give students direct feedback on their creativity.

What are some examples of collaboration for students? ›

The following examples are among the most well-known types of collaborative learning:
  • Think-pair-share: Give students a discussion prompt, question, short problem, or issue to consider. ...
  • ​​​​​​​Problem-based learning (or PBL) ...
  • Guided Design. ...
  • Case Studies. ...
  • Simulations. ...
  • Peer Teaching. ...
  • Small group discussion. ...
  • Peer Editing.

Which three steps are important to help in solving problems collaboratively with students? ›

Supporting Struggling Students Through Collaborative Problem Solving
  • Step 1: Connect to identify the root cause.
  • Step 2: Explain impact on oneself and others.
  • Step 3: Collective Problem Solving.
Feb 23, 2022

What is an example of activities in collaborative learning? ›

For example:
  • Pair or group discussions.
  • Completing shared tasks in a pair or group, e.g. matching, sorting, ranking.
  • Activities or games with a competitive element, e.g. bingo.
  • Drama and role play.
  • Information exchange activities, including barrier games and jigsaw activities.

How can you engage students in collaborative learning? ›

Guide students through the stages of team building (forming, storming, norming, and performing). Give students time and opportunities within the activity to develop leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict-management skills. Establish expectations and norms for working together.

How does collaboration improve student learning? ›

The benefits of collaborative learning include: Development of higher-level thinking, oral communication, self-management, and leadership skills. Promotion of student-faculty interaction. Increase in student retention, self-esteem, and responsibility.

How would you encourage children to collaborate and solve problems? ›

5 ways to help kids become collaborative problem-solvers
  1. Hint but don't help. In order to get the most out of group work, adults need to support and encourage rather than direct the group's attempts to do the task. ...
  2. Teach them to take turns. ...
  3. Give everyone a role. ...
  4. Think about the question. ...
  5. Reach a consensus.
Mar 2, 2017

Why is it important to manage the collaborative tasks and activities of the students? ›

Learning Collaboratively Helps Students

Plan activities that give students the opportunity to work and collaborate together to learn and grow from each other. Collaborative learning has been shown to not only develop higher-level thinking skills in students, but boost their confidence and self-esteem as well.

How do you foster creative thinking in children? ›

8 Ways to Boost Creativity as a Family
  1. Teach children to ask “what if” questions. ...
  2. When mistakes happen, try to find the positives. ...
  3. Learn about and encourage your child's interests. ...
  4. Ask your child open-ended questions. ...
  5. Spend time outside. ...
  6. Encourage free time and creative play.
Oct 28, 2020

What are the three principles for fostering creativity? ›

The next time you need to solve a problem, you can grow your team's creative capacity by focusing on three core design thinking principles, or the 3 E's: empathy, expansive thinking, and experimentation.

How do you engage students in creative thinking? ›

Here are 14 creative ways to engage students in discussions, problem-solving, critical thinking, and more:
  1. Assumption Busting. ...
  2. Brain-sketching. ...
  3. Brainstorming. ...
  4. Concept Mapping. ...
  5. Exaggeration. ...
  6. Fishbone. ...
  7. Laddering. ...
  8. Negative (or Reverse) Brainstorming.

What are some examples of creative thinking? ›

Examples of creative thinking skills include: problem solving, writing, visual art, communication skills, and open-mindedness.

Which are the key steps to enable creative collaboration at work? ›

Provide great leadership.

Avoid being too autocratic and allow time for the team to weigh in on decisions. Address cultural issues that defeat collaboration. Give credit where credit is due and recognize team performance as well as individuals. Help build team connections across the organization.

What makes creative collaboration work effectively? ›

Collaboration works best when we have a shared vision for what we are doing. It's not an accident that bands break up over “creative differences.” After all, “Hotel California” is nothing like “Peaceful, Easy Feeling.” Sometimes a group fails because they simply disagree on what the finished result should be.

What are the 4 C's of collaboration? ›

Communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity are considered the four c's and are all skills that are needed in order to succeed in today's world.

What are the 3 C's of collaboration? ›

There are three things needed for success in your personal life and in business — collaboration, communication and cooperation. Collaboration is working with someone else to produce or create something. All parties agree to work together to achieve objectives.

What is a real example of collaboration? ›

A few examples include being able to articulate your thoughts and feelings clearly, listening attentively, owning up to your errors, and appreciating the unique perspectives of your coworkers. True teamwork involves combining the efforts of each team member to reach a shared objective.

What makes a classroom group and collaboration successful? ›

Establish norms around working in a group.

The best teams understand that common expectations are crucial for success. Take time before the first meaningful collaborative work to create norms around communication, meetings, organization, and decision making. Define team roles and size.

What are the 4 steps in collaborative problem solving? ›

Gather information and research to increase understanding of the problem. Analyze the problem (learning about its causes, what barriers exist to fix it, etc.) Reach a consensus about the “best” solution. Develop implementation steps (a plan) of the solution.

What is the role of the teacher in collaborative learning? ›

Collaborative teachers differ in that they invite students to set specific goals within the framework of what is being taught, provide options for activities and assignments that capture different student interests and goals, and encourage students to assess what they learn.

How do you encourage collaborative problem solving? ›

However, the most effective problem-solving solutions often come through collaborative problem solving.
How to solve problems as a team
  1. Set Expectations. ...
  2. Provide Variety. ...
  3. Communicate Clearly. ...
  4. Expand the Possibilities. ...
  5. Encourage Creativity. ...
  6. Provide Positive Feedback.

What are collaborative learning strategies? ›

Collaborative learning takes place when students work together in small groups on a shared learning task. Within this framework, there are many approaches that use different kinds of tasks and organization. At its core, collaborative learning relies on the creation of meaningful tasks and engaging group responses.

What are collaborative learning methods? ›

A collaborative (or cooperative) learning approach involves pupils working together on activities or learning tasks in a group small enough to ensure that everyone participates. Pupils in the group may work on separate tasks contributing to a common overall outcome, or work together on a shared task.

What strategies do you use to encourage group work with your students? ›

Encourage the team to work together by:
  • Deciding ahead of time how you will assign teams. ...
  • Determine how long teams will be together. ...
  • Assign team roles to ensure that everyone participates. ...
  • Ask questions to the disinterested student. ...
  • Ask each group member to summarize ideas.

How do you collaborate with students to build a positive learning environment? ›

Promote positive interaction amongst your students. Allow them to share their feelings, and encourage them to listen to each other, give compliments, express gratitude and practice problem solving together. As teachers, we can present topics and help initiate discussions, but then let students guide the conversation.

What are the 5 types of collaborative teaching? ›

They include: one teach, one support; parallel teaching; alternative teaching; station teaching; and team teaching.

How can school promote stronger collaboration among its teachers? ›

To initiate or revitalize teacher collaboration in your school, try these five strategies.
  • Create a truly shared vision and goals. ...
  • Develop a sense of community. ...
  • Identify group norms. ...
  • Use discussion and dialogue. ...
  • Work through conflict.

Why is communication and collaboration important in learning? ›

Communication and collaboration taught effectively across the curriculum (rather than just expecting them to happen) could transform learning opportunities for students to participate in lively conversations, express their opinions, build upon other ideas, present information, and evaluate another speaker's point of ...

What is the definition of collaboration in education? ›

Simply defined, collaboration takes place when members of an inclusive learning community work together as equals to assist students to succeed in the classroom. This may be in the form of lesson planning with the special needs child in mind, or co-teaching a group or class. Friend and Cook (1992, p.

What is the best way to encourage someone to collaborate? ›

Consider the following tips to encourage collaboration in your digital workplace.
  1. Create a supportive work environment. ...
  2. Communicate expectations clearly. ...
  3. Use an online platform to communicate with team members and increase collaboration. ...
  4. Work with your employees' strengths. ...
  5. Encourage team members to brainstorm.

Which activities is helpful for the children to develop collaboration skills? ›

5 Tips To Develop Collaboration Soft Skills
  • Participate In Group Activities. Getting a child to cooperate with others can often be a challenge, but it is important for your child to develop this skill. ...
  • Include Your Child in Your Daily Routine. ...
  • Initiate Play Dates. ...
  • Encourage Good Sportsmanship. ...
  • Collaborate With Other Parents.
Jan 21, 2020

How do you encourage collaboration in children? ›

Collaboration with children means consulting with children in ways that are developmentally appropriate and meaningful to the child. It also requires adults to provide children with opportunities to express their views and be genuinely listened to by caring, responsive adults.

What are three important skills for teamwork and collaboration? ›

Here are seven teamwork skills that are essential for your academic and professional success:
  • Communication. Communication is the foundation of effective teamwork. ...
  • Time management. ...
  • Problem-solving. ...
  • Listening. ...
  • Critical thinking. ...
  • Collaboration. ...
  • Leadership.

What is collaborative approach and what are the best practices of collaborative learning in classroom? ›

When a group of two or more students work together to complete an activity, discuss a question, or collaborate on a task, we call it collaborative learning. The intended consequence of accomplishing tasks together is to help students learn the complexities of solving a problem and promote deeper learning through doing.

What are the four characteristics of collaborative learning explain? ›

New Learning and Thinking Curricula Require Collaboration

Successful learners share four characteristics: They are knowledgeable, self-determined strategic, and empathetic thinkers. Research indicates successful learning also involves an interaction of the learner, the materials, the teacher, and the context.

What are the teaching strategies that will develop critical and thinking skills? ›

A few other techniques to encourage critical thinking are:
  • Use analogies.
  • Promote interaction among students.
  • Ask open-ended questions.
  • Allow reflection time.
  • Use real-life problems.
  • Allow for thinking practice.
Oct 2, 2019

What strategies will you use to enhance critical thinking among learners? ›

How to increase critical thinking skills as a student?
  • Ask questions. It is often seen that students hesitate to ask questions in the classroom. ...
  • Participate in discussions. ...
  • Practice active learning. ...
  • Study with the help of examples. ...
  • Go beyond academic learning.
Nov 24, 2021

Which strategy will best foster critical thinking? ›

5 Easy Strategies for Developing Critical Thinkers
  • #1 – Questioning Techniques. Questioning is an essential tool for developing critical thinking skills. ...
  • #2 – Student-Led Discussions. ...
  • #3 – Inquiry-Based Learning. ...
  • #4 – Collaboration. ...
  • #5 – Problem-Based Learning.

Which teaching strategy is most likely to faster the development of critical thinking of students? ›

Lateral thinking- It is made of a set of specific techniques that promote creative problem-solving.

What strategies can nurse educators use to better promote critical thinking skills in students? ›

Promoting interaction among students, because learning in a group setting can help students to achieve more than they might working on their own. Asking open-ended questions, which encourages students to think and respond creatively, without fear of giving the “wrong” answer.

How do teachers help students develop the skill of critical thinking? ›

Encouraging students to think critically means encouraging them to question everything. If you ask students questions such as “Why did you write that?,” “What makes you say that?,” or “How would you prove that?,” you encourage them to think critically. Asking questions helps students become better thinkers.

What are the five easy steps to improve your critical thinking skills? ›

Here's how you can start improving today.
  1. Formulate your question. Know what you're looking for specifically. ...
  2. Gather your information. Now that you know what's relevant to your problem or decision, research it. ...
  3. Apply the information. What concepts are at work? ...
  4. Consider the implications. ...
  5. Explore other points of view.

What top 5 strategies habits will you employ to develop your critical thinking skills? ›

5 strategies to grow critical thinking skills
  • Strategy 1: Be a continuous learner. ...
  • Strategy 2: Make the right decision for the majority. ...
  • Strategy 3: Listen and consider unconventional opinions. ...
  • Strategy 4: Avoid analysis paralysis. ...
  • Strategy 5: Analyze yourself.
Sep 17, 2015

How do you foster critical thinking and problem-solving skills? ›

How to Develop Critical Thinking
  1. Don't Believe Everything You're Told. The first step to critical thinking is to consider more than one point of view. ...
  2. Don't Believe Everything You Think. ...
  3. Ask Questions. ...
  4. Research Deeper. ...
  5. Evaluate Your Work.

How can you promote critical and reflective thinking with students? ›

Prompt students' reflection by asking questions that seek reasons and evidence. Provide some explanations to guide students' thought processes during explorations. Provide a less-structured learning environment that prompts students to explore what they think is important.

What is an example of critical thinking for students? ›

For example, students might apply critical thinking in their science lesson to work out the best way to approach their group project. They make decisions such as who will complete each task, in what time frame. They solve problems like how and where they will meet outside of school hours to work together.

Why is it important to engage students in critical thinking? ›

Teaching students how to think critically helps them turn information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. In the classroom, critical thinking teaches students how to ask and answer the questions needed to read the world.

Why is it important for students to develop their critical thinking skills? ›

Critical thinking is at the core of learning because it allows students to reflect on and comprehend their perspectives. Based on personal reflection and understanding, this skill assists a student in determining how to understand the world around them.


1. 4Cs: Digital Tools to Foster Collaboration, Communication, Critical Thinking, & Creativity August 27
(Ed Tech Team)
2. ASU GSV Summit: Fostering Students - Creativity and Critical Thinking: From School Practices to PISA
(Global Silicon Valley)
3. Rethinking Student Engagement | Nurun Nahar | TEDxUniversityofBolton
(TEDx Talks)
4. Building a Belonging Classroom
5. Using Technology to Support Collaborative Learning
(Katherine Hixon)
6. Best Team Building Activities | Smart Skills
(Smart Skills TV)


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